The place with the northward broken term that talk a clump why content existence Ni Zhijuan (place of philosophy of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, beijing 100732) the humanism course of language philosophy. After philosophical linguistics changes direction, philosopher people the meaning whole that tries to build to turn over dualism for the center with the language. Be regarded as in cognitive process before the language of a kind of transparent medium, accepted philosopher people the focusing from each angle is clairvoyant. To the attention of the language, it is the result that human knowledge competence deepens, also be a when philosophical oneself develops certain level. But the philosophy after linguistics changes direction is in language mystification. Superstition changes the cage that was immersed in a language thereby.
What lingustic direction indicator of philosophy knows occurrence generation and tradition is contrary with difference.
The main target that modern philosophy pays close attention to by advocate object relation or consciousness and the concern that put the relation that be in to turn to language and world, regard main problem of philosophy as language problem, strive casts off metaphysical shadow, build a meaning whole that turns over dualism for the center with the language. So this changed direction to whether resolve the crisis of traditional philosophy truly, it wheres to real significance of philosophy, the linguistics of modern philosophy changes direction undertake with two clew: The humanism course of the scientific creed course of philosophy of analysis of Ying Meiyu character and philosophy of European mainland language.
Be language analysis philosophy above all is arisen.
At the beginning of arising from philosophy, language problem is included in philosophical thought, it is the tool that people regards the essence of emersion thing, expression as the thought the language all the time only. In period of ancient Greek Rome, what philosopher pays close attention to is the noumenon problem of everythings on earth; Latter-day later, the subject that knows an activity and the understanding method that its use become the center that philosophy pays close attention to. To 19 centuries evening, the new development of science shook again " You Di gets stuck , as mechanical as Newton the latter-day philosophy Fan Shi that at the same time development rises " (library favour language) in the development process in modern science, the internal composition of scientific language and its motion made the kinetic ingredient that develops scientificly theoretically, the progress that restricting scientific theory and deepen. To scientific theory: "The most significant is not the exact nature of the thing that observes directly, be opposite however the thing that is observed (namely academic fact) give out explain a gender state, because be these manage science,knowledge should pass ability of specific scientific language system description, explanation and the regularity that hold objective world. And show algebra to manage to appear logically, make people OK the thing that in intellectual domain use argument and measure word place mean, assure the catholicity of logistic development and consistency thereby. Such, logic, consistency is replaced historic the demand that makes knowledge. The huge success with the academic science of prosperous along with that brings scientificly to human life, the descriptive means that makes science academic and its formalization system make the important standard that people evaluates. The possibility problem that people asks to serve as metaphysical philosophy to also can be understanding provides a reliable basis, rigorous like experience science, and " capable to undertake to individual science critically " (language of Hu Sai Er) 1914, luosu begins to regard tool of a kind of thinking as to apply Yu Zhe to learn a territory mathematical logic, he discovers always real philosophical problem is OK and reductive for logical question, final like maths OK and reductive like be logic. He says: " this is not stem from accidental, however as a result of this fact, namely each philosophy problem, give when us when necessary analysis and abstraction, with respect to meeting discovery, the person that character declare publicly gave to be forgotten by common people and natural blame are cosmopolitan relation, make the person obtained the essence that lives on the earth " on the earth dwell of poetic flavour ground is resided " . Accordingly, the Shi Zhisai that Haidegeer puts forward is in going up at all is a dialog about language, existence, truth, if what he says: "Thinking of the dialog with the poem is for the nature of evocative language, so that need,dead person is able to learn to give birth to existence language call the turn afresh. (P2l) it is here, poem and the dialog that think of are not the make a decision that a kind of knowledge lives one kind however, language problem is risen to come here the noumenon that be in talks height.
It perhaps is philosophical problem far from, perhaps use logic in us saying on the meaning of one word is logical question. (P24) analyse through logic, luo Suxuan weighs a lot of traditional issue or since case Er are a mistake to Cong Baila pursues black, or is false. The gram in the leader stone of Vienna school is in later " philosophical change > in point out further: "Ponder over the essence of expression and allegation, namely avery kind of is likely ' language (most of broad sense) substaintial, the understanding capacity that replaced research mankind... people thinks that he cannot reply all along, insoluble, not be real problem, however insignificant phraseology is arranged.
8) such, through introducing mathematical logic in philosophy, the philosophy that the language analyses arose.
The language analyses philosopher to think, after philosophy thinks of differentiate to change a language to the analysis, philosophy no longer the secret with culminating and real hunting, offer new proposition no longer; Clarify however already some proposition, through building science, formal language of the system, the basic idea that excludes because of the disorder of language expression generation is confused, make philosophy achieves scientific creed place to ask thereby " accurate " , " clear " standard.
Such OK the metaphysics of philosophy of clear up tradition is bemused.
If say language analysis philosophy is,be start with the logistic demonstration of modern science, so philosophy of European mainland language criterion with phenomenological and ontological for start.
Although Husaier does not have phenomenological author to put forward philosophy clearly to be a center in order to study a language, but he founds phenomenological purpose and positivism happen to have the same view, hope to make philosophy becomes a close science namely. He thinks to depend on qualitative ' , " description " be equal rise, can make philosophical utmost ground obtains stated clear . This stressed the importance of the language undoubtedly. After Husaier, the concern issue of the person antonym character such as Haidegeer, Weitegensitan, Gadamoer and existence undertook reflection.
Child gal of Haidegeer amounted to silent Er to found modern philosophy hermeneutic.
Be in " the truth and method " he is critically in one book all sorts of language organon. He is mixed through learning to etymology philosophical history makes an on-the-spot investigation, the central idea Logos that points out western philosophy (patrol each this) in its on original meaning, it is the unity that serves as phraseology and object, and to Plato times criterion dissension is contrary n duality. Plato builds the preexistence premise in object or concept antonym character about the theory of the language, from now on the lengthy process that western philosophy began to cast off language control to control a language conversely again, "And those who be in this direction end is latter-day the ideal of the tool theory about the language and rational symbolic system, the language existence that is squeezed between image and symbol can be identified only pure symbol exists (. 35) ) he accedes Haidegeer's train of thought, " language " problem and " existence " problem union rises, think the language is us " consist in world " effective fundamental way, also be the form of all-embracing that the world forms. And " of poetry, artistic language " just have exclusive beauty, the substantivity that show and satisfactory .
Have the aid of is planted at this beautiful, the substantivity that show and satisfactory , people can realize this pair of true memory and new knowledge. Philosophical language turned to another heaven and earth through Haidegeer, Gadamoer -- artistic, poetic language. The word that uses Gadamoer says, this is " power of primitive language is broken out mediumly in thought domain " , "' language ' because this lives to its with all and direct force,become for the endurance basis of the world most important; ... situation place inevitable, language itself becomes the target that it holds in philosophical ego.
After philosophical linguistics changes direction, philosopher people the meaning whole that tries to build to turn over dualism for the center with the language. Look in them, the language is the pure form on traditional sense or pure tool no longer, and the reality that becomes exclusive structuralization, rise about the language experience of the world for very thing.
Be regarded as formerly in cognitive process the language of a kind of transparent medium, accepted look in Haidegeer, the traditional metaphysics since Cong Baila pursues put upside down the relation of language and person, language from a kind " it is in " became belong to me (person) content, obstructed existence thereby: "Be a language most the apparent situation that created menace and ambiguous existence first, created the possibility that loses existence namely. Want to understand the essence of the language truly, must put upside down the relation of the language that is put upside down for a long time and person again come over. Of so-called language " it is in " it is to show language eye just serves as " the home of existence " and in, but the language of the home that serves as existence was destined again the dwell house of call person. The person is on surely " in " in, be on a language surely namely in. Then, " the language of the home that the highest possibility that the language is controlling life to put regards existence as is had " this " and " those " cent, this of the language makes people indulge in follows " public opinion " disgraced sink into. And the those of the language is to regard as " do not have the sound of content and come silently, it has called out the person blatant the public opinion in ear (this) and be faced with windy (those person is passed surmount " this " and trend " those " it is a trend namely go this kind my return to later only then this true language of condition looks poetic language looks first. Philosopher of poetic language people the focusing from each angle is clairvoyant.
philosophy of antonym character analysis, the issue that its discuss belongs to epistemological limits as before, the purpose of research still is seeking reliable assurance for knowledge, just replaced the research to intelligence problem to the research of language problem. They announced the characteristic of language structure and mental are inherent and characteristic the affinity between, make former sightless intelligence character comes out from the expression in language structure (. L8) ) a kind of when language structure regards intelligence as the activity initiative structure or inherent structure, it is flute card no longer a priori of rational hypothesis and Kantian is schematic, have sufficient experience reason instead.
The language analysed philosopher to analyse the feature of the language, think although the language is the child of symbolism together with geometrical form and logistic inference form, do not belong to a kind however " pure form " . Because we cannot be the regulation with language accurate formulate beforehand, and language itself shows meaning is ambiguous, cause misapplication easily, be this kind of misapplication just produced all sorts of philosophy problems. Have the sense of demarcate phraseology only, announce of syntactic regulation empty, make the language accords with strict logistic form, ability is right all sorts of " the language is fallacious " undertake cure treat, early days Weitegensitan thinks overall philosophy is a language namely critically.
If say traditional philosopher to restrict experience world in order to surmount experience world to be ideal again all the time, the language analyses philosopher to find the way that realizes this one ideal it seems that now: They believe to adopt mathematical logic method, can help the language that builds a form, be located in the base point of understanding surely " logistic -- language "
on the foundation, to the problem of those nature and concept, be like existence, inevitable, likelihood and individual, object, relation can undertake logistic figure or symbolism, quantified processing, thereby integral ground, system is located in manage philosophy problem, promote the development that philosophy studies and development.
The task that analyses philosopher to offer philosophy clearly is to propose form no longer system of a kind of knowledge, one kind decides or discover the activity of propositional meaning however, semantic analysis method is the most significant step. Philosophy pays close attention to phraseology and world, phraseology and the correlation between regular, phraseology and phenomenon and phraseology and substance only, its exclusive use offers plead for the meaning of phraseology namely. Analytic philosopher people think from this OK the metaphysical problem of clear up tradition, make philosophy obtains clear and authentic , become be similar to science in that way course. Go up in this meaning just about, kaernapu says or state with certainty: "The ' of a branch that philosophy is logic is below the immediate impact that analyses philosophy, scientific philosophy makes the main trend that 20 centuries philosophy studies, one " analytic philosophy ' the times arose.
With analytic philosophy " linguistics changes direction " appeal to differ at science and logic, the linguistics that initiates by Haidegeer changes direction to think of the way that says with character to go up from philosophical carry, traditional to the west since Plato philosophy was done overall and critically, critically spearhead pointed to analytic philosophy itself even. Haidegeer thinks, begin from the Platonism, western philosophy built thinking of of a kind of object, the world is regarded as the external object of an understanding and main body are contrary rise, philosophical task is to know the world that serves as object, announce its are substaintial. This kind advocate the guest's contrary thinking mode serves as a kind of main thought perforative at whole west philosophy. "All metaphysics, include its anti positivism, saying the language of Plato. Look in Haidegeer, one kind thinking of of this kind of object is pair of existence fitly is obstructed and forget, philosophical object should not be binary and contrary advocate, object, and should be right " existence " of itself comprehend, be one kind advocate, the source character voice that object has not split up.
Accordingly, haidegeer puts forward to want to change a language to rebuild with the poem philosophy. In western philosophy tradition, art is by repulsion all the time besides philosophy, be thought to have nothing to do with the truth, the language of rational creed becomes the exclusive and lawful language in western culture. And Haidegeer thinks the truth is not alleged main body and object conform to close, and should be " take the person that exist from inside cover condition in letting a person do not have my condition in its, look " , and only language ability of the poem makes existence clear bright, show, make philosophy likely.
A lot of epigone after him also continued this one train of thought. They think, the language is human existence some kind is idiosyncratic, have collective base with the society. So " the existence that verbal expression means is the person that everything exists " (language of the base of a fruit of Mei Luoyi Pang) language " the quality that the special structure place that can show each side has jointly " (list dimension, replace with the language " ' reason ' , form " language center creed ' , they the language that strive changes with artistic truth, poem will save western philosophy, the conflict of scientific creed and humanism in close west culture, contrary. With respect to this bit character, its culture meaning should analyse philosophy at the language greatly far.
The hand inning that philosophical linguistics turns to to learn for European mainland philosophy and Ying Meizhe collected confluence to offer possibility. Ou Liu and flower beauty from latter-day since in culture idiosyncratic on show huge difference. And the collective attention of antonym character makes two traditions found the speech center that communicate and communicates. Luo Di is advanced the change on idea of later period philosophy is a model is paradigmatic, his one's early years is the able person that analyses philosophy, accept mainland philosophy ideological trend later and begin introspection to analyse philosophy, raise the requirement with complementary be linked together of two kinds of traditional be in harmony. Philosophical linguistics changes direction to also show culture unifinication inclination accordingly.
4 languages changed direction to bring a fresh air for philosophical domain, but language if really can replace metaphysical noumenon, what is the final a home to return to that the language turns to, illuminate in the view of modern philosophy below, whether was philosophical crisis removed really, whether did philosophy acquire new life and value meaning from this, from say on the whole, the linguistics of western philosophy changes direction smashed the view of mirror type language of traditional metaphysics, had the language all-around view is illuminated as a center, the language is the mirror with the dormant one side that reflects reality no longer, bearing the weight of however the existence of meaning and truth. This kind changes direction for philosophical establish new research technique and research target caused the essential revolution inside thinking domain. But at the same time, also produced a lot of new issues.
The frame that the language analyses principle of philosophical general science is embedded in philosophy, used character of antonym of technology of contemporary mathematical logic to undertake meticulous " analysis " , adopt pair of traditional philosophy " clean and disinfect " , eliminated a few inherent corrupt practice, in the meantime, bring philosophy to however only scientific creed. The language analyses philosophy to rely on the rationality that analyses a technology, emphasize apparently indifferent, actually is philosophical degradation simple technical operation, make philosophy lost the diversity of the thought and rich . For example, inchoate Weitegensitan is making think when logistic analysis to philosophy, philosophy is connected reductive the qualification that is logic is suspectable, because philosophy is not a mistake however no point. He is in " logistic philosophy talks " in write: The most problem of philosopher and proposition, be the language that does not know oneself as a result of the person is logistic and of generation. So, all through the ages is propositional to philosophical great majority with the problem, be not erroneous absurd, be insignificant. Although be in his later period composing " philosophy studies " in, his thought had produced apparent change, but he still denies philosophical meaning. He according to the meaning namely the viewpoint of usage, think language activity as language game, without essence, without common characteristic, the meaning of phraseology is them the usage in the language. The language is the mirror of static report world no longer, however the one part of human society activity, form of a kind of life, the bounds of the language is the bounds of the world. "Envisage consider of imply of a kind of language to live like a kind (life) form.
He points out finally: "Philosophy is one is a method with the language the fight that to us the bewitch place of wisdom makes " (PJre) . The language analyses the logistic speech of philosophical establish, build in fact new ideological, make philosophy makes a technology the academic footnote of regnant thoughts, block the diversity way that the thought develops.
Haidegeer advocates think of as unripe as poetic dialog hair to come out " thought -- poem one by one the truth " road, emphasize finding the firsthand experience that obtains existence from inside the language, with period the notional kind that destroys metaphysics. This clew is heart law modern philosophy place is accepted, they were made to the essence of the crisis of the times and technology be disclosed adequately and critically. But, to the beyond the mark mining of the poetic feature of philosophical language, be faced with make the danger of philosophical language clear up. In philosophical hermeneutic, structuralism and contemporary solution compose creed, of the language indicate with can point to be differentiated by definitely, in language drain " what can point to is slip " in, language no longer laden thought, however game, become a kind not to have the deposit that think of. Philosophy lost expressional base gradually, philosophical language goes to bits almost, show the pluralism of the meaning and ambiguous , no longer can integrated complete figure.
To this, solution compose of Delida is provided most representative. Delida is used " solution compose "
Will overturn the implicit binary and contrary thinking mode in metaphysical speech, "Solution compose ' be similar to type of Hai Dege Er namely " go my " means. And with Haidegeer, delida also emphasizes " solution compose ' not be adscititious, factitious, the ego that enters language interior however sees form (ego goes my) motion. He says: Check the structural pedigree of its concept, do not have from it at the same time with the some that name or describes explicit angle, corroborant in the process that this paragraph of history builds oneself to make be the history in the inhibition that through this one as terrible as it remote closes, what did the likelihood mask, repelled what. (Pl29) Delida thinks, including namely in the language without my contradict with what obstruct: A kind of structure may block another kind of construction, a kind of meaning may cover another kind of import. "Solution compose " want declare publicly to be depressed so namely, the likelihood that is obstructed another kind in speech to open wide, reason Jonathan.
Card forces evaluation way: "Seeing form is not a kind of theory that limits a meaning how to discover in order to tell you. The agent of critically clear up with the contrary n duality with all sorts of trenchant grade that lay a foundation as all academic so as to, its elucidate any be about to limit an import from single way (if interpret author intention,indicate, traditional place is definite, of reader place experience etc) the difficulty that faces theoretically. " Ll3) ultimate goal of philosophy is to should announce piece " meaning source " , "Solution compose " point out this kind of source is absent however: The language is the ground of the former hair of the meaning, but the source of the meaning is from beginning to end " mystery ' , the language is in only game of the freedom in having pilot condition. " the impossible that understood compose to develop all literary science or speech science " (. 8) the essence that the linguistics that this word spoke philosophy fitly turns to: The focusing of antonym character, fluoroscopy and think over, it is the result that human knowledge competence deepens, also be a when philosophical oneself develops certain level, but, the philosophy after linguistics changes direction is in change language mystification, superstition, was immersed in the cage of the language thereby.
Analyse philosophy to the language, maerkusai made relatively critical comment: "Language analysis perhaps is outstanding, it is correct. But do not cross that's what it all adds up to. (PJ50) he points out us for this must put apart is specific " reservation " , allow thought and language legally not accurate, faintness is contradictory even, just be a kind of reasonable manner, ability " the domain of opinion on public affairs that protects a standard effectively spares improper idea is disturbed badly " Ll2 (. 6) ) and consider the dialog with the poem and contemporary solution form to what mainland language philosophy advocates learn, we should keep vigilant likewise: On one hand, be opposite the clear up of existing language structure, overturn while, final value or center also are in by clear up, this makes human culture appears necessarily for windy, in windy over it is open of impossible without foundation of prospect of a future, because of the mankind the development of culture has to depend on Lai Lianxu and inheritance, and just formed pulling force because of traditional existence just about, make see form be able to likelihood; On the other hand, no matter the language has basis of what kind of noumenon and culture to state a function, but the language cannot replace the mankind to live itself, regard everything as the border that think of the language, perhaps be true to existing fitly forget.
Luo Su. We the knowledge about outer room world. Chen Qiwei interpret. Shanghai: Shanghai translation press, 1990. Shi Li is overcome. Philosophical change. Big modest chief editor. Logistic empiricism (go up) . Beijing: Business affairs imprints book house, l982. Yu Hong. Think of the dialog with the poem. Beijing: Press of Chinese society science, l99l. Yagebusen. Contemporary and Russian poetry. Presently revive formalistic article talks the Damoer that choose gal. The truth and method. Taipei: Times culture publication company is limited fair Gadamoer. Destroy with solution compose. Philosophical interpret clump, l99l, chomsky. Chomsky language philosophy anthology. Xu Liejiong, wait for interpret. Beijing: Business affairs imprints book house, l992. Haidegeer. Of philosophy terminative with the task that consider. Philosophical interpret clump, si Tan of root of L992 dimension spy. Philosophical research. Li Bulou interpret. Beijing: Business affairs imprints book house, l996. Qiaonasenkale. Discuss solution form. Beijing: Limited company of day horse books, l993. Luo Su. Human knowledge. Zhang Jinyan interpret. Beijing: Business affairs imprints book house, l983. Maerkusai. One-way spent person. Zhang Feng interpret. Chongqing: Chongqing press, l988 (place of philosophy of courtyard of division of company of author department China is postdoctoral, philosophical doctor, associate professor of department of division of company of institute of feeling of Hubei filial piety) Piao responsibility edits Li Jinhui Piao
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